fisher X 100 A
20th November 2011, 04:33 PM
Currently we are listening to Beethoven which started us thinking about truth behind playing music to your child while still in the womb?
Also wondering if any one has had experiences or have knowledge about interesting sites on the subject?
20th November 2011, 04:44 PM
About as credible as that Baby Einstein junk ?
20th November 2011, 04:52 PM
I watched A Clockwork Orange yet again last night - I recommend that you keep your young 'un's ears well away from Ludwig Van.
20th November 2011, 05:04 PM
Setting aside Hollywood movies as a source of information, the unborn child can hear so Fisher's question is sensible... Here are some extracts from relevant papers on the net:
- "Auditory sense is present in the infant 24 weeks before birth [14 weeks after conception]. This involves brain functioning and memory patterns." - M. Clemens, "5th International Congress Psychosomatic," OB & GYN, Rome: Medical Tribune, Mar. 22, 1978, p. 7
- Recent technology allowed a tiny microphone to be placed by the fetus’s head and "We heard almost everything, from people talking 12 feet away, to a door opening in the room, to a cart going down the hall with the door closed. The clarity was incredible. It was easy to tell who was talking." The results showed the fetus hears everything we do, only 10 decibels less. Their earliest response to sound was at 26 weeks. - "Is Noise an Intrauterine Threat," Phelan & Satt, by R. McGuire, Med. Tribune, Nov. 30, 1989
...And here are summaries of some controlled studies:
- "Some Aspects of the Fetal Sound Environment"
Abrams, R. M. (1995). In I. Deliège & J. A. Sloboda (Eds.), Perception and cognition of music(pp. 83–101).Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press.
By twenty-four weeks, the cochlea and peripheral sensory end organs of the fetus have reached their normal development, and by twenty-six weeks most fetuses will respond with increased heart rate to sound stimulation, indicating that they are able to perceive sounds. The inner ear of the fetus is fully functioning during the last trimester of pregnancy.
The fetal sound environment is "heavily dominated by mother's voice and other internal noises and permeated by rich and diversified rhythmic and tonal surrounding sounds." (Abrams, 1995, p. 83) The internal noises include the mother's breathing, cardiovascular and intestinal activity, physical movements, "fetal cardiovascular pulsations," and building vibrations of very low frequencies (below 50Hz).
To be perceived by the fetus, outside sounds must be louder than the "noise floor" (sounds of the fetal environment). At frequencies below 60Hz (the approximate frequency of the lowest note on the piano), the noise floor is about eighty decibels (dB). From 60–250Hz, the noise level is less than 60dB. Above 60Hz, the noise floor is about 60dB.
The fetus will probably not hear airborne sounds above 500–1000Hz unless the sounds are uncomfortably loud for the mother. However, lower frequency sounds are heard by the fetus at comfortable listening levels for the mother. Therefore, "the fetus is probably detecting only the fundamental frequencies of a musical passage. Very little high frequency information would be detected" (Abrams, 1995, p. 99).
- "Prelude to a Musical Life: Prenatal Music Experiences"
Shetler, D. J. (1985). Music Educators Journal, 71,(7), 26–27.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of systematic prenatal musical stimulation by observing musical behaviors exhibited between birth and six years of age.
Sixteen babies and their parents participated in this study. Some of the babies (the article does not indicate how many) were serenaded before birth by "stimulative" or "sedative" types of music. For many, the home environment was rich with musical stimulation. After birth, the babies and their parents visited the investigator at least once every sixty days. The babies were observed, and their responses and activities were documented. The babies listened to recorded and live sounds, including short rhythmic and melodic fragments. Echo or imitative responses were documented. Sounds made by the baby during free-play activities when "sound toys" were introduced were also noted. Children three years and older sang or played the piano and other instruments, and their activities were observed and documented. Developmental growth was also discussed with the mother and, in some cases, other family members.
The infants who received systematic prenatal musical stimulation exhibit "remarkable attention behaviors, imitate accurately sounds made by adults (including nonfamily members), and appear to structure vocalization much earlier than infants who did not have prenatal musical stimulation" (Shetler, 1985, p. 27).
- "Prenatal and Postnatal Responses to Music and Sound Stimuli: A Clinical Report"
Wilkin, P. E. (1993). In T. Blum (ed.), Prenatal perception, learning and bonding (pp. 307–29). Berlin: Leonardo Publishers.
An update of this study also appeared in the Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education in Winter 1995/96, 3, pp.105–108, under the title "Comparison of fetal and newborn responses to music and sound stimuli with and without daily exposure to a specific piece of music." The 1991 study utilized a control group of only six women. This update describes the comparison between the results of the 1993 study and a larger control group that was studied after the book article was published. The following summary combines information from both sources.
A pretest and a posttest were conducted.
Experimental Group: N = 32
Control Group: N = 34
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of daily listening of music on fetuses and newborns.
The test-group fetuses were monitored for fetal movements and heart rate at thirty-two and thirty-eight weeks gestation. Following ten minutes of monitoring with no stimulus, headphones were secured to the mother's abdomen and covered with a pillow, and a tape was played. The mother was also asked to write down the number and type of movements the fetus made for each item on the tape. (The mothers were prevented from hearing the tape in order to limit their recordkeeping to a purely fetal response.) The four items on the test tape were each five minutes long:
Piano solo: Beethoven's Piano Sonata, op. 31 no. 2, in D minor ("The Tempest")
Choral (a cappella): Palestrina's "Kyrie" from Missa Pape Marcelli
Rock (instrumental): Emerson, Lake, and Palmer from An Anthology of Rock.
The test group was also were given a tape of either item two or three to play for their fetuses on a daily basis from thirty-two weeks gestation and for six weeks after birth. The contents of the test tape and the home tape were not revealed to the women until a home visit at four to six weeks. The control group of thirty-four pregnant women was given no specific listening tasks and was monitored at thirty-eight weeks only. At six weeks, the babies of both groups were again monitored while the tape was played. They were scored on the following:
Number of movements
Still and listening
Frowning and anxious
Woke and/or cried
A high percentage of test-group fetuses had heart-rate decelerations greater than or equal to five seconds duration during the playing of the audio test tape at thirty-eight weeks gestation. This was highly significant in comparison with the test group, indicating that the daily playing of the music influenced fetal responses. At thirty-two weeks, the fetuses did not appear to distinguish between the items on the tape. However, at thirty-eight weeks the piano sonata and the choral piece elicited the most response from the test-group fetuses. The largest deceleration effect and also the highest number of fetal movements was accrued during the playing of the Beethoven sonata. The home listening had no significant influence on fetal responses during the thirty-eight week monitoring.
The babies in the test group were more ready to listen, more receptive and alert, and more active in response to the music than the control group babies were. The test-group babies listened more attentively to the piano sonata and the choral piece. They were less disturbed than the control group by the rock music (though both groups demonstrated anxiety through facial and body tension). A number of the test babies appeared to recognize the sound of the piano within the rock music, relaxing the body and facial tension during the several bars in which it appeared; the tension quickly returned when the other instruments resumed.
- "Effects of the Firstart Method of Prenatal Stimulation on Psychomotor Development: The First Six Months"
Lafuente, M. J., Grifol, R., Segerra, J., Soriano, J., Gorba, M. A., & Montesinos, A. (1997). [On-line]. Pre- & Peri-Natal Psychology Journal, 11, (3), 151–162. Abstract from: Ovid Technologies File: PsychInfo Item: 1997–30104–002.
N = 172
A posttest was conducted.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the Firstart prenatal stimulation method, which attempts to "advance the intellectual and physical development of the fetus by means of musical stimuli" (Lafuente et al., 1997, p. 152).
Procedure: One-hundred-seventy-two maternity patients who were enrolled in a birth preparation course participated in this study. The mothers were separated into experimental and control groups. For an average of seventy hours from about twenty-eight weeks to the end of pregnancy, the mothers in the experimental group wore small speakers attached to a waistband and connected to a tape player that played a series of eight tapes of violin sounds. After the births of their babies, all of the mothers charted the onset of their infants' behaviors from zero to six months utilizing the Observational Scale of Development.
Results: The behaviors of the experimental-group babies were significantly advanced compared to the behaviors of the control-group babies. The experimental-group babies were superior in gross and fine motor activities, linguistic development, some aspects of body-sensory coordination, and certain cognitive behaviors.
...I can't tell what my unborn son liked, however the waters broke while his mother was listening to Sibelius' Violin Concerto. As a swaddling infant he appeared to enjoy Vivaldi and, er, The Clash; 26 years later he still does. This suggests that the effects of early exposure are long lasting so don't play any Abba or Bee Gees!
fisher X 100 A
21st November 2011, 05:26 AM
Well Maxgate - have you a hidden talent your not telling us about!.......very interesting ready!:)
21st November 2011, 02:59 PM
Well Maxgate - have you a hidden talent your not telling us about!.......very interesting ready!:)
I'm sure that most Enzers have hidden talents. Happily, this is not the venue for show and tell. However I do like verifiable information, even more than I dislike dismissive pop culture references, so it was a pleasure to provide a few leads.
It appears that Beethoven's Piano Sonata, op. 31 no. 2, in D minor ('The Tempest') is a good option to introduce baby to music. This does raise my eyebrows because the opening movement is regarded as a sonic equivalent to the storm that shipwrecks Prospero in Shakespeare's play 'The Tempest'; it's violent.
My personal choice among Beethoven's piano works is Sonata No. 31 in A flat major, Op. 110 - where, I swear, you can hear the beginnings of stride technique, which led to jazz.
21st November 2011, 03:46 PM
We played "Baby Dub" for our last 2 kids, worked a treat on Mum too I think.
21st November 2011, 04:30 PM
Track 4 on Baby Dub made our then one year old burst into tears everytime- weird eh?
For the unborn I recomend stuff like Ministry and Motorhead - it will get them ready for a hard life as a grown up
21st November 2011, 06:26 PM
BABY DUB sucks big time for both parent, foetus or baby.
forget opus 110. opus 111 is the one to give the unborn the willies. So much more sturm ung angst. Definitely my all time best, that deserves to be shared across many generations. :)
21st November 2011, 07:17 PM
"However I do like verifiable information, even more than I dislike dismissive pop culture references, so it was a pleasure to provide a few leads."
No intent to offend - I have also been taken to task for flippancy in the past.
I would recommend the Bats for in utero entertainment for the young one.
21st November 2011, 07:28 PM
21st November 2011, 07:40 PM
After the child arrives, you may find yourself in a slump. The sleepless nights, endless soiled nappies, threat to your turntable, prospects of escalating costs curtailing your hi-fi adventures. If this is the case...
"Making music using African percussion instruments has been proven to help people recover from depression by enabling them to express repressed emotions and communicate painful experiences.
Music therapy should be offered alongside conventional treatments, especially to people who struggle to talk about their thoughts and feelings, according to research published in today's British Journal of Psychiatry."
Don't worry about the child, save yourself.
22nd November 2011, 07:32 AM
Never heard a negative comment about baby Dub in my life. What's wrong Cliff?
Powered by vBulletin™ Version 4.1.2 Copyright © 2013 vBulletin Solutions, Inc. All rights reserved.